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dc.contributor.authorD’Errico, Gabriele
dc.contributor.authorMachado, Heather L.
dc.contributor.authorSainz Jr., Bruno
dc.contributor.otherUAM. Departamento de Bioquímicaes_ES
dc.contributor.otherInstituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" (IIBM)es_ES
dc.date.accessioned2017-07-17T15:24:52Z
dc.date.available2017-07-17T15:24:52Z
dc.date.issued2017-01-03
dc.identifier.citationClinical and Translational Medicine 6.3 (2017): 1-10en_US
dc.identifier.issn2001-1326es_ES
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10486/679050
dc.description.abstractImmunotherapy is the new trend in cancer treatment due to the selectivity, long lasting effects, and demonstrated improved overall survival and tolerance, when compared to patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. Despite these positive results, immunotherapy is still far from becoming the perfect magic bullet to fight cancer, largely due to the facts that immunotherapy is not effective in all patients nor in all cancer types. How and when will immunotherapy overcome these hurdles? In this review we take a step back to walk side by side with the pioneers of immunotherapy in order to understand what steps need to be taken today to make immunotherapy effective across all cancers. While early scientists, such as Coley, elicited an unselective but effective response against cancer, the search for selectivity pushed immunotherapy to the side in favor of drugs focused on targeting cancer cells. Fortunately, the modern era would revive the importance of the immune system in battling cancer by releasing the brakes or checkpoints (anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1) that have been holding the immune system at bay. However, there are still many hurdles to overcome before immunotherapy becomes a universal cancer therapy. For example, we discuss how the redundant and complex nature of the immune system can impede tumor elimination by teeter tottering between different polarization states: one eliciting anti-cancer effects while the other promoting cancer growth and invasion. In addition, we highlight the incapacity of the immune system to choose between a fight or repair action with respect to tumor growth. Finally we combine these concepts to present a new way to think about the immune system and immune tolerance, by introducing two new metaphors, the “push the accelerator” and “repair the car” metaphors, to explain the current limitations associated with cancer immunotherapyen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by NIH R00 CA154605 and Louisiana Board of Regents LEQSF(2016-17)-RD-C-14 (H.L.M.), a Rámon y Cajal Merit Award from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Spain (B.S.Jr) and a Clinic and Laboratory Integration Program (CLIP) grant from the Cancer Research Institute, NY (B.S.Jr).en_US
dc.format.extent10 pag.es_ES
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoengen
dc.publisherSpringer Openen_US
dc.relation.ispartofClinical and Translational Medicineen_US
dc.rights© The Author (s) 2017es_ES
dc.subject.otherCTLA-4en_US
dc.subject.otherPD-1en_US
dc.subject.otherPD-L1en_US
dc.subject.otherImmunotherapyen_US
dc.subject.otherColey’s toxinen_US
dc.titleA current perspective on cancer immune therapy: Step‑by‑step approach to constructing the magic bulleten_US
dc.typearticleen
dc.subject.ecienciaMedicinaes_ES
dc.relation.publisherversionhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s40169-016-0130-5es_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s40169-016-0130-5es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationfirstpage1es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationissue3es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationlastpage10es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationvolume6es_ES
dc.type.versioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersionen
dc.rights.ccReconocimientoes_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopenAccessen
dc.facultadUAMFacultad de Medicina
dc.institutoUAMInstituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" (IIBM)


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