Defining the most effective patient blood management combined with tranexamic acid regime in primary uncemented total hip replacement surgery
EntityUAM. Departamento de Cirugía; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Universitario de La Paz (IdiPAZ)
PublisherMDPI, Basel, Switzerland
10.3390/jcm9061952Journal of Clinical Medicine 9.6 (2020): 1952
Subjectsuncemented total hip replacement; patient blood management; tranexamic acid; optimal protocol; bloodless medicine; Medicina
Rights© 2020 The authors
Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución 4.0 Internacional.
The application of patient blood management (PBM) combined with tranexamic acid administration (TXA) results in decreased total blood loss volume (TVB) and transfusions in total hip replacements (THRs). Dosages, timing, and routes of administration of TXA are still under debate as all these aspects, as well as interpatient variations, may a ect the e cacy of the protocol. This study aims to examine the e ectiveness of timing and route of administration of TXA in combination with PBM by reducing the TBV following THR surgery. Consecutive primary uncemented THRs operated by a single surgical and anaesthetic team had the data prospectively collected and then retrospectively studied. Five treatment groups were formed, reflecting the progressive evolution of our protocol. Group 1 included patients managed with PBM alone (preoperative erythrocyte mass optimisation to at least 14 g/dL haemoglobin (Hb), hypotensive spinal anaesthesia and restrictive red blood cell transfusion criteria). Group 2 included patients with PBM and topical 3 g TXA diluted in normal saline to a total volume of 50 mL. Group 3 were patients with PBM and an IV dose of 20 mg/kg TXA at induction, followed by 20 mg/kg TXA as a continuous infusion for the duration of the operation. Group 4 consisted of patients managed as per Group 3 plus another 20 mg/kg TXA at three-hour post-procedure. Group 5 (combined): PBM and IV TXA as per Group 4 and topical TXA as per Group 2. A generalised linear model with the treatment group as an independent variable was modelled, using TBV as the dependent variable. The transfusion rate for all groups was 0%. TBV at 24 h, oscillated from 613.5 337.63 mL in Group 1 to 376.29 135.0 mL in Group 5. TBV at 48 h oscillated from 738.3 367.3 mL (PBM group) to 434 155.2 mL (PBM + combined group). The multivariate regression model confirmed a significant decrease of TBV in all groups with TXA compared with the PBM-only group. Overweight and preoperative Hb were confirmed to significantly influence TBV. The optimal regime to achieve the least TBV and a transfusion rate of 0% requires PBM and one loading 20 mg/kg dose of TXA, followed by continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg for the duration of the operation in uncemented THRs. Additional doses of TXA did not add a clear benefit
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