Precision nutrition to activate thermogenesis as a complementary approach to target obesity and associated-metabolic-disorders
EntityUAM. Departamento de Química Física Aplicada
10.3390/cancers13040866Cancers 13.4 (2021): 866
ProjectGobierno de España. PID2019-110183RB-C21; Comunidad de Madrid. P2018/BAA-4343- ALIBIRD2020-CM; Comunidad de Madrid. IND2017/BIO-7826; Comunidad de Madrid. IND2018/BIO-10097
SubjectsAdrenergic System; Antiobesity Activity; Brown Adipose Tissue; Cardiovascular Disease; Drug Mechanism; Exercise; Inflammation; Malignant Neoplasm; Metabolic Disorder; Skeletal Muscle; Thermogenesis; Química
Rights© 2021 by the authors
Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución 4.0 Internacional.
Obesity is associated to increased incidence and poorer prognosis in multiple cancers, contributing to up to 20% of cancer related deaths. These associations are mainly driven by metabolic and inflammatory changes in the adipose tissue during obesity, which disrupt the physiologic metabolic homeostasis. The association between obesity and hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is well known. Importantly, the retrospective analysis of more than 1000 epidemiological studies have also shown the positive cor-relation between the excess of fatness with the risk of cancer. In addition, more important than weight, it is the dysfunctional adipose tissue the main driver of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and all cause of mortality and cancer deaths, which also explains why normal weight individuals may behave as “metabolically unhealthy obese” individuals. Adipocytes also have direct effects on tumor cells through paracrine signaling. Downregulation of adiponectin and upregula-tion of leptin in serum correlate with markers of chronic inflammation, and crown like structures (CLS) associated to the adipose tissue disfunction. Nevertheless, obesity is a preventable risk factor in cancer. Lifestyle interventions might contribute to reduce the adverse effects of obesity. Thus, Mediterranean diet interventional studies have been shown to reduce to circulation inflammatory factors, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular function, with durable responses of up to 2 years in obese patients. Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra‐virgin olive oil reduced the incidence of breast cancer compared with a control diet. Physical activity is another important lifestyle factor which may also contribute to reduced systemic biomarkers of metabolic syndrome associated to obesity. In this scenario, precision nutrition may provide complementary approaches to target the metabolic inflammation associated to “unhealthy obesity”. Herein, we first describe the different types of adipose tissue ‐thermogenic active brown adipose tissue (BAT) versus the energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT). We then move on precision nutrition based strategies, by mean of natural extracts derived from plants and/or diet derived ingredients, which may be useful to normalize the metabolic inflammation associated to “unhealthy obesity”. More specifically, we focus on two axis: (1) the activation of thermogenesis in BAT and browning of WAT; (2) and the potential of augmenting the oxidative capacity of muscles to dissipate energy. These strategies may be particu-larly relevant as complementary approaches to alleviate obesity associated effects on chronic in-flammation, immunosuppression, angiogenesis and chemotherapy resistance in cancer. Finally, we summarize main studies where plant derived extracts, mainly, polyphenols and flavonoids, have been applied to increase the energy expenditure
Google Scholar:Reguero, Marina - Gómez de Cedrón, Marta - Wagner, Sonia - Reglero Rada, Guillermo J. - Quintela, José Carlos - Ramírez de Molina, Ana
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