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dc.contributor.authorStockert, Juan C.
dc.contributor.authorEspada Regalado, Jesús
dc.contributor.authorBlázquez-Castro, Alfonso
dc.contributor.otherUAM. Departamento de Biologíaes_ES
dc.date.accessioned2022-11-10T12:13:48Z
dc.date.available2022-11-10T12:13:48Z
dc.date.issued2022-02-24
dc.identifier.citationColorants 1.1 (2022): 91-120es_ES
dc.identifier.issn2079-6447es_ES
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10486/705150
dc.description.abstractMelanin and melanoma tumors are two fields of increasing interest in biomedical research. Melanins are ubiquitous biopigments with adaptive value and multiple functions, and occur in the malignant melanoma. Although several chemical structures have been proposed for eumelanin, molecular modeling and orbitals indicate that a planar or spiral benzoquinone-porphycene polymer would be the model that better explains the broad-band light and ultrasound absorption, electric conductivity, and graphite-like organization shown by X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. Lysosomes and melanosomes are selectively labeled by vital probes, and melanin also binds to metal cations, colorants, and drugs, with important consequences in pharmacology, pathology, and melanoma therapy. In addition to traditional and recent oncologic treatments, photodynamic, photothermal, and ultrasound protocols represent novel modalities for melanoma therapy. Since eumelanin is practically the ideal photothermal and ultrasound sensitizer, the vibrational decay from photo-excited electrons after NIR irradiation, or the electrochemical production of ROS and radicals after ultrasound absorption, induce an efficient heating or oxidative response, resulting in the damage and death of tumor cells. This allows repetitive treatments due to the remaining melanin contained in tumoral melanophages. Given that evolution and prognosis of the advanced melanoma is still a concern, new biophysical procedures based on melanin properties can now be developed and appliedes_ES
dc.format.extent29 pag.es_ES
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfes_ES
dc.language.isoenges_ES
dc.relation.ispartofColorantses_ES
dc.rights© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licensees_ES
dc.subject.otherbiological staining; eumelanin structure; intercalative binding; melanin ligands; melanosomes; melanoma therapyes_ES
dc.titleMelanin-binding colorants: updating molecular modeling, staining and labeling mechanisms, and biomedical perspectiveses_ES
dc.typereviewes_ES
dc.subject.ecienciaBiología y Biomedicina / Biologíaes_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/colorants1010007es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationfirstpage91es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationissue1es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationlastpage121es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationvolume1es_ES
dc.type.versioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersiones_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsopenAccesses_ES
dc.facultadUAMFacultad de Cienciases_ES


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