Temperature influences the production and transport of saxitoxin and the expression of sxt genes in the cyanobacterium aphanizomenon gracile
EntidadUAM. Departamento de Biología
Fecha de edición2017-10-13
10.3390/toxins9100322Toxins 9.10 (2017): 322
ISSN2072-66 51 (online)
Versión del editorhttps://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9100322
MateriasAphanizomenon; Cell Membrane; Chlorophyll; Genes, Bacterial; Saxitoxin; Temperature; Biología y Biomedicina / Biología
Derechos© 2017 by the authors
Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución 4.0 Internacional.
The cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile is the most widely distributed producer of the potent neurotoxin saxitoxin in freshwaters. In this work, total and extracellular saxitoxin and the transcriptional response of three genes linked to saxitoxin biosynthesis (sxtA) and transport (sxtM, sxtPer) were assessed in Aphanizomenon gracile UAM529 cultures under temperatures covering its annual cycle (12 ºC, 23 °C, and 30 °C). Temperature influenced saxitoxin production being maximum at high temperatures (30 °C) above the growth optimum (23 °C), concurring with a 4.3-fold increased sxtA expression at 30 °C. Extracellular saxitoxin transport was temperaturedependent, with maxima at extremes of temperature (12 °C with 16.9% extracellular saxitoxin; and especially 30 °C with 53.8%) outside the growth optimum (23 °C), coinciding with a clear upregulation of sxtM at both 12 °C and 30 °C (3.8-4.1 fold respectively), and yet with just a slight upregulation of sxtPer at 30 °C (2.1-fold). Nitrate depletion also induced a high extracellular saxitoxin release (51.2%), although without variations of sxtM and sxtPer transcription, and showing evidence of membrane damage. This is the first study analysing the transcriptional response of sxtPer under environmental gradients, as well as the effect of temperature on putative saxitoxin transporters (sxtM and sxtPer) in cyanobacteria in general
Google Scholar:Cires Gómez, Samuel - Delgado, Adrián - González Pleiter, Miguel - Quesada del Corral, Antonio
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