Variability in the sxt gene clusters of PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon gracile strains from Norway, Spain, Germany and North America
EntityUAM. Departamento de Biología
PublisherPublic Library of Science
10.1371/journal.pone.0167552PLoS ONE 11.12 (2016): e0167552
SubjectsAphanizomenon; Aquatic Organisms; Base Sequence; Conserved Sequence; Genes, Bacterial; Germany; INDEL Mutation; Lakes; Multigene Family; Norway; Open Reading Frames; Phylogeny; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S; Saxitoxin; Spain; United States; Biología y Biomedicina / Biología
Rights© 2016 Ballot et al.
Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución 4.0 Internacional.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production. The strain NIVA-CYA 851 was identified as A. gracile using 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and was confirmed to produce neosaxitoxin, saxitoxin and gonyautoxin 5 by LC-MS. The whole sxt gene clusters (circa 27.3 kb) of four A. gracile strains: NIVA-CYA 851 (Norway); NIVA-CYA 655 & NIVA-CYA 676 (Germany); and UAM 529 (Spain), all from latitudes between 40° and 59° North were sequenced and compared with the sxt gene cluster of reference strain A. gracile NH-5 from the USA. All five sxt gene clusters are highly conserved with similarities exceeding 99.4%, but they differ slightly in the number and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (In/Dels). Altogether 178 variable sites (44 SNPs and 4 In/Dels, comprising 134 nucleotides) were found in the sxt gene clusters of the Norwegian, German and Spanish strains compared to the reference strain. Thirty-nine SNPs were located in 16 of the 27 coding regions. The sxt gene clusters of NIVA-CYA 851, NIVACYA 655, NIVA-CYA 676 and UAM 529, were characterized by 15, 16, 19 and 23 SNPs respectively. Only the Norwegian strain NIVA-CYA 851 possessed an insertion of 126 base pairs (bp) in the noncoding area between the sxtA and sxtE genes and a deletion of 6 nucleotides in the sxtN gene. The sxtI gene showed the highest variability and is recommended as the best genetic marker for further phylogenetic studies of the sxt gene cluster of A. gracile. This study confirms for the first time the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in Norwegian waters, representing the northernmost occurrence of PSP toxin producing A. gracile in Europe known so far. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
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