Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus

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dc.contributor.author Castellanos-Gomez, Andres
dc.contributor.author Vicarelli, Leonardo
dc.contributor.author Prada, Elsa
dc.contributor.author Island, Joshua O.
dc.contributor.author Narasimha-Acharya, K. L.
dc.contributor.author Blanter, Sofya I.
dc.contributor.author Groenendijk, Dirk J.
dc.contributor.author Buscema, Michele
dc.contributor.author Steele, Gary A.
dc.contributor.author Alvarez, J. V.
dc.contributor.author Zandbergen, Henny W.
dc.contributor.author Palacios, J. J.
dc.contributor.author Van Der Zant, Herre S J
dc.contributor.other UAM. Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada es_ES
dc.date.accessioned 2016-01-18T18:22:38Z
dc.date.available 2016-01-18T18:22:38Z
dc.date.issued 2014-09-01
dc.identifier.citation 2D Matererials 1.2 (2014): 025001 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 2053-1583 es_ES
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10486/669327
dc.description This is the post-peer reviewed version of the following article: A. Castellanos-Gomez et al. “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus”. 2D Matererials, 2014, 1(2) 025001 doi:10.1088/2053-1583/1/2/025001 Which has been published in final form at: http://iopscience.iop.org/2053-1583/1/2/025001 en_US
dc.description.abstract Isolation and characterization of mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus flakes with a thickness down to two single-layers is presented. A modification of the mechanical exfoliation method, which provides higher yield of atomically thin flakes than conventional mechanical exfoliation, has been developed. We present general guidelines to determine the number of layers using optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy in a fast and reliable way. Moreover, we demonstrate that the exfoliated flakes are highly crystalline and that they are stable even in free-standing form through Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements. A strong thickness dependence of the band structure is found by density functional theory calculations. The exciton binding energy, within an effective mass approximation, is also calculated for different number of layers. Our computational results for the optical gap are consistent with preliminary photoluminescence results on thin flakes. Finally, we study the environmental stability of black phosphorus flakes finding that the flakes are very hydrophilic and that long term exposure to air moisture etches black phosphorus away. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that the aging of the flakes is slow enough to allow fabrication of field-effect transistors with strong ambipolar behavior. Density functional theory calculations also give us insight into the water-induced changes of the structural and electronic properties of black phosphorus en_US
dc.description.sponsorship A.C-G. acknowledges financial support through the FP7-Marie Curie Project PIEF-GA-2011-300802 (‘STRENGTHNANO’). This work was supported by the Dutch organization for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Innovation through Grants Nos. FIS2010-21883-C02-2, FIS2012-37549-C05-03 and CONSOLIDER CSD2007-0010, the Generalitat Valenciana under Grant PROMETEO/2012/011, and the Ramón y Cajal Program (E.P). KLMA acknowledges support from the CCC of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid en_US
dc.format.extent 45 pag. es_ES
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso eng en
dc.publisher Institute of Physics Publishing (IOP) en_US
dc.relation.ispartof 2D Materials en_US
dc.rights © 2014 IopScience en_US
dc.subject.other Black phosphorus en_US
dc.subject.other Raman spectroscopy en_US
dc.subject.other Mechanical exfoliation en_US
dc.subject.other Transmission electron microscopy en_US
dc.subject.other Density functional theory en_US
dc.subject.other Band structure en_US
dc.subject.other Exciton en_US
dc.subject.other Field-effect transistor en_US
dc.title Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus en_US
dc.type article en
dc.subject.eciencia Física es_ES
dc.relation.publisherversion http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/1/2/025001 es_ES
dc.identifier.doi 10.1088/2053-1583/1/2/025001 es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationfirstpage 025001 es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationissue 2 es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationlastpage 025001 es_ES
dc.identifier.publicationvolume 1 es_ES
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/300802 es_ES
dc.relation.projectID Gobierno de España. FIS2010-21883-C02-2 es_ES
dc.relation.projectID Gobierno de España. FIS2012-37549-C05-03 es_ES
dc.relation.projectID Gobierno de España. CSD2007-0010 es_ES
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion en
dc.rights.accessRights openAccess en


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